Control and regulation of supply

Section title

Control and regulation of supply

Brief definition of policy approach

Measures which aim to limit young people’s opportunities to participate in addictive behaviours by restricting the production and sale of substances or the provision of gambling services

Description of policy approaches

These measures pertain to the production and sale of substances as well as the provision of gambling services. For alcohol, examples of specific measures include restrictions on who can produce and sell alcoholic beverages (e.g., through licensing systems), and where and when these can be sold (e.g., restrictions on outlet density or sales days/hours). For tobacco, relevant examples include restrictions on sale of tobacco from vending machines or removing tobacco products from self-service displays in shops. For illegal drugs, this includes measures targeting the illegal production and sale of banned substances as well as measures to prevent the non-medical use of prescription medicines or restrictions pertaining to new psychoactive substances that fall outside of traditional illegal drug control (e.g. medicines regulations). For gambling, restrictions on locations for land-based gambling providers are a relevant example. These measures are not necessarily specific to young people, although they can have implications for young people as well. Measures specific to young people include supply of goods restrictions in educational or child care facilities.

Typical measures included under this approach

  1. Measures targeting legal production/sales
    • Alcohol – Control of production; control of on- and off- premises sales; conditions on sale
    • Tobacco – Control of sales; regulation of product contents and emissions; restrictions on type and quantity of tobacco products; restrictions on display; restrictions on sales mechanisms
    • Illegal Drugs – Prohibition, regulations, licensing, scheduling
    • Gambling – Control of supply; restrictions on game types; regulation of game features; restrictions on cross border gambling (Internet)
  2. Restrictions on the sale of drug paraphernalia
    • Alcohol – No approaches identified
    • Tobacco – No approaches identified
    • Illegal Drugs – Restrictions on products used to assist production or consumption of drugs
    • Gambling – No approaches identified
  3. Measures targeting illegal production/sales
    • Alcohol – Regulation and licensing of producers and sellers
    • Tobacco – Regulation and licensing of producers and sellers
    • Illegal Drugs – Regulation and licensing of producers and sellers of precursor chemicals
    • Gambling – No approaches identified
  4. Measures to promote alternatives
    • Alcohol – Availability of low or non-alcoholic beverages
    • Tobacco – No approaches identified
    • Illegal Drugs – No approaches identified
    • Gambling – No approaches identified
  5. Delivery structures and quality assurance measures
    • Alcohol – Licensing and enforcement authorities
    • Tobacco – Guidelines for testing and measuring the content and emissions of tobacco products
    • Illegal Drugs – Enforcement authorities
    • Gambling – Post-licensing monitoring by regulating authorities

Summary of available evidence for interventions and policies

  1. Beneficial
    • No evidence identified
  2. Likely to be beneficial
    • No evidence identified
  3. Mixed evidence
    • No evidence identified
  4. Unknown effectiveness
    • Sports based interventions designed to promote ‘responsible’ beverage consumption and availability of low or non-alcoholic beverages
    • Interventions that mobilise community support in conjunction with restricting tobacco product distribution, regulating the mechanisms of sale, enforcing access-to-minors laws, and educating and training merchants
    • Youth tobacco access ordinances designed to reduce adolescent tobacco use
  5. Ineffective
    • No evidence identified

Key Reviews

Priest et al., 2008; Ranney et al., 2006Full set of evidence tables (PDF)